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[10 Apr 2005|05:52pm]

[ mood | blah ]


1. Taft-Hartley Act
- "slave labor law"
- outlawed "closed" (all union) shop, made unions liable for damages for disputes among themselves
- required union leaders to take a non-Communist oath
2. G.I. Bill of Rights
- Readjustment Act of 1944
- made provisions for sending former soldiers to school
- enabled the Veteran's Adminstration (VA) to guarantee loans for homes, farms, and small business
3. The Affluent Society
- Harvard economist Jehn Kenneth Galbraith
- questioned the relation between private wealth and public good
- post war prosperity produced private opulence amid public squalor
4. Agribusiness
- expensive machinery made agriculture a big business
- agriculture - capital-intensive
- sounded death knell for small family farms
5. Benjamin Spock
- Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1945)
- homely wisdom
- phenomenal popularity of advice books on child rearing
6. Sunbelt
- fifteen-state area stretching from VA through FL and TX to AZ and CA
- increased its population at a rate nearly double that of the old industrial zones of the Northeast (the "Frostbelt")
- loose geographical concept, as some Deep South states had very little population growth, whereas the mountain and Pacific states were booming
7. Suburbia
- FHA and VA home-loan guarantees made it more economically attractive to own a home in the suburbs
- government-built highways that sped commuters fromsuburban homes to city jobs furthur facilitated this mass migration
- by 1960, 1 of every 4 Americans dwelt in suburbia
8. Baby Boom
- the huge leap in the birthrate in the decade and a half after 1945
- young men and women tied the nuptial knot in record numbers at war's end
- demographic explosion that added more than 50 million babies to the nation's population by the end of the 1950s
9. The Great African-American Migration
- blacks from the South migrated North and Midwest
- incoming blacks imported the poverty of the south into the Northern cities
- Detroit Race Riot, 1943
10. Harry Truman
- an "accidental president" (Roosevelt's death)
- was called the "average man's average man"
- the first president in many years without a college education, he had farmed, served as an artillery officer in France during WWI, and failed as a haberdasher
11. Yalta Conference
- February 1945 at Yalta, conference of the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin)
- final plans were laid for smashing the buckling German lines and shackling the beaten Axis foe
- of all the grave decisons at Yalta, the most controversial concerned the Far East (re: the atomic bomb)
12. Cold War
- history provided little hope that the U.S. and the USSR would reach cordial understandings about the shape of the postwar world
- different visions of the postwar world separated the two superpowers
- not only shaped Soviet-American relations; also overshadowed the entire postwar international order in every corner of the globe
13. United Nations
- strongly resembled the old League of Nations Covenant
- featured a Security Council dominated by the Big Five powers (U.S., Britain, USSR, France, China)
- helped preserve peace in Iran, Kashmir, and other trouble spots; played a large role in creating the new Jewish state of Israel
14. Nuremberg Trials
- the Allies joined in trying 22 top culprits at Nuremberg, Germany during 1945-6
- accusations included committing crimes against the laws of war and humanity and plotting aggressions contrary to solemn treaty pledges
- 12 of the accused Nazis swung from the gallows; 7 were sentenced to long jail terms
15. Iron Curtain
- East Europe virtually disappeared from Western sight
- "iron curtain" of secrecy and isolation that Stalin clanged down across Europe from the Baltic to the Adriatic
- the division of Europe would endure for more than 4 decades
16. Berlin Airlift
- Americans organized a gigantic airlift in the midst of hair-trigger tension
- for nearly a year, flying some of the very aircraft that had recently dropped bombs on Berlin, American pilots ferried thousands of tons of supplies a day to the grateful Berliners, their former enemies
- Soviets finally lifted their blockade in May 1949; goverments of the two Germanies, East and West, were formally established
17. Truman Doctrine
- the president went before Congress on March 12, 1947 and requested support for what came to be known as the Truman Doctrine
- specifically, he asked for $400 million to bolster Greece and Turkey, which Congress quickly granted
- critics complained that the Doctrine needlessly polarized the world into pro-Soviet and pro-American camps and unqisely construed the Soviet threat as primarily military in nature
18. Marshall Plan
- June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall invited the Europeans to get together and work out a joint plan for their economic recovery
- Europeans met in Paris in July 1947 to thrash out the details
- called for spending $12.5 billion over four years to 16 cooperating countries
19. National Security Act
- passed in 1947 by Congress
- created the Department of Defense
- also established a National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government's foreign fact-gathering
20. NATO
- the Truman administration decided to join the European pact, called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in recognition of its transatlantic character
- signed in Washington on April 4, 1949
- 12 original signatories pledged to regard an attack on one as an attack on all, and promised to respond with "armed force" if necessary
21. Japanese Constitution, 1946
- MacArthur-dictated consititution
- renounced militarism and introduced Western-style democratic government
- paved the way for a phenomenal economic recovery that within a few decades made Japan one of the world's mightiest industrial powers
22. Mao Zedong
- Communist
- former leader of China
- struggle with Generalissimo Jiang Jieshi
23. Hydrogen Bomb
- city-smashing device many times more deadly than the atomic bomb
- the U.S. exploded its first hydrogen device on a South Pacific atoll in 1952
- the Soviets exploded their first H-bomb in 1953, and the nuclear arms race entered a perilosuly competitive cycle
24. Smith Act
- the first peacetime antisedition law since 1798
- in 1949, 11 Communists were brought before a NY jury for violating this act of 1940
- the Supreme Court upheld their convictions (of advocating the overthrow of the American govrnment by force) in Dennis v. United States (1951)
25. Alger Hiss
- a prominent ex-New Dealer
- distinguished member of the "eastern establishment"
- convicted of perjury in 1950 and sentenced to 5 years in prison
26. House Un-American Activities Committee
- House of Representatives established the HUAC in 1938
- established to investige "subversion"
- 1948, Nixon led the case after Alger Hiss
27. Richard Nixon
- ambitious red-catcher
- led the chase after Alger Hiss in 1948
- Congressman at the time
28. Joseph McCarthy
- Republican Senator of Wisconsin
- charged that there were scores of known communists in the State Department
- proved utterly unable to substantiate his accusation and began to fear that the red-hunt was turning into a witch-hunt
29. Rosenberg Case
- two American citizens, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, were convicted in 1951 of esponage
- had allegedly "leaked" atomic data to Moscow
- went to the electric chair in 1853; were the only people in American history ever executed in peacetime for espionage
30. Henry Wallace
- former Vice President
- nominated at Philadelphia by the new Progressive party
- Democratic
31. Strom Thurmond
- nominated by "Dixiecrats"
- Governor of South Carolina
- nominated on a States' Rights party ticket
32. Thomas Dewey
- New Yorker
- nominated by Republicans
- Governor
33. Fair Deal
- Truman outlined this sweeping program in his 1949 message to Congress
- called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs, and an extension of Social Security
- most of the Fair Deal fell victim to Congressional opposition from Republicans and southern Democrats (only major successes came in raising minimum wage, providing for public housing, extending old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries)
34. Korea, June 1950
- Korea - Land of the Morning Calm - heralded a shooting phase
- June 25, 1950; spearheaded by Soviet-made tanks, North Korean army columns rumbled across the 38th parallel
- Korean invasion provided the occasion for a vast expansion of the American military
35. Douglas MacArthur
- General
- appointed U.N. commander
- launced a daring amphibious landing behind the enemy's lines at Inchon

What's that sound?...

[28 Feb 2005|10:13pm]

Wer 2 nd Wer.Collapse )
1 Voice in your head..|What's that sound?...

REALISM TEST 2-22-05 [19 Feb 2005|01:37pm]

HANDOUT OVER PAGES 347-357 and 423-433Collapse )

Authors' Bio and WorksCollapse )

The AwakeningCollapse )
What's that sound?...

AMERICA MOVES TO THE CITY [24 Jan 2005|08:12pm]

Whore with a Heart of GoldCollapse )
1 Voice in your head..|What's that sound?...

[24 Jan 2005|07:04pm]

[ mood | sleepy ]

Textbook Quiz #1-16. Motherfucker.Collapse )

1 Voice in your head..|What's that sound?...

JUXTAPOSE OMFUG!!!! [16 Jan 2005|02:10pm]

What's that sound?...

[10 Jan 2005|08:58pm]

[ mood | stressed ]

She's shaking down an absence they've known from shockCollapse )

What's that sound?...

[10 Jan 2005|01:05am]

Choo Choo..Collapse )
What's that sound?...

It's a JUNGLE down there. [10 Jan 2005|12:11am]

The JungleCollapse )
What's that sound?...

For printing-at-the-library-due-to-technology-being-a-fag purposes. [09 Jan 2005|11:21pm]

[ mood | SUCK IT ]

Full SledgeCollapse )

Full WellsCollapse )

What's that sound?...

Suicide isn't so bad - just give it a chance. [09 Jan 2005|09:37pm]

The Whole Sledge GuideCollapse )

My part of Chem guideCollapse )

Wells' GuideCollapse )
What's that sound?...

Por Paulina [04 Jan 2005|07:18pm]

Kris Clements is HOT SHITECollapse )
What's that sound?...

Hahaha [09 Dec 2004|11:13pm]

Join this shit:
What's that sound?...

STFUPLZ!!! [18 Nov 2004|07:30pm]

Man Feast Destiny.Collapse )
What's that sound?...

[18 Nov 2004|06:36pm]

[ mood | bored ]

Chapter 17 Outline bitchCollapse )

What's that sound?...

Typing out notes.... [14 Nov 2004|03:15pm]

Longfellow ShitCollapse )
What's that sound?...

[11 Nov 2004|07:55am]

I totally forgot to post this mother.Collapse )
What's that sound?...

Jacksonian Emocracy (eXc) At Flood Tide [11 Nov 2004|07:30am]

Jacksonian Emocracy (eXc) At Flood TideCollapse )
What's that sound?...

CHAPTER 9 [12 Oct 2004|07:23pm]

*A Revolution of Sentiments
Accelerated evolution, not violent, radical overturning of society
-work, family life, religion continued as usual
- 80,000 Loyalists left, weakening aristocracy
-new patriot elites emerged, along w/some egalitarian democracy
Army officers formed Society of Cincinnati, were criticized as elitist
- most states reduced property qualifications for voting
-growth of trade unions, end of primogeniture laws
-disestablishment of Anglican church: Va Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)
Phil. Quakers formed first anti-slavery society, 1775
-First Cont Cong called for end to slave trade
-several northern states abolished slavery outright or gradually
-yet laws vs interracial marriage appeared
-fight over slavery would be delayed in order keep states together
Women had some rights; some served in military, NJ allowed voting
-Abigail Adams teased John that women would foment rebellion
-most women worked at home, became imp. as models of civic virtue
- citizens should be devoted to public good, viz “republican motherhood”

*Constitution-making in the States
-Cont Cong urged states to make new const’s in 1776
-some kept old colonial charters, with a few revisions
- spirit of democratic republicanism captured, e.g. MA had special convention, then ratification by people
Written law, fundamental law, usually w/a bill of rights
-often required annual election of legislators
- weak exec and judicial branches
-legislature often given sweeping powers, sometimes too much
New members of leg often from poor, western regions
-America becoming more democratic
-relocation of some state capitals, usually westward

*Economic cross-currents
-States seized crown land, speculators became rich
-Loyalist land cut up into small farms
- no reign of terror, but the creation of new yeomen
New industry, new products made by Americans, which had formerly been imported
-mills built, but some people lost business w/o English market
-fishing and naval stores suffered
-more trade w/other nations, even China
Problems: extravagance, speculation, profiteering, inflation
-new class of conspicuously rich profiteers
-disrespect for private property after confiscation of Loyalist land
-many law courts closed

*A Shaky Start Toward Union
Patriots now lacked the unity of the war effort
-hard times in 1786, new influx of Br goods hurt Amer manufacturers
- tough competition
13 states similar in constitution and political inheritance
-good leaders: Washington, Madison, Adams, Jefferson, Hamilton

*Creating a Confederation
2nd Cont Cong like a meeting of ambassadors from 13 states
-states were sovereign, coined money, raised army, had tariffs, even treaties w/foreign countries (VA and France, 1778)
-committee wrote Articles of Confederation, adopted 1777 by CC, approved by states 1781
Six states had no western lands, 7 had claims west of Appalachians
-argument over who gets money from sale of lands: states or central?
-decision: let western lands eventually become states, not colonies
-pioneers purchased land from fed govt, increased loyalty to nation

*Articles of Confederation: first Constitution
“Firm league of friendship” or “articles of confusion”
-13 states joined for common problems: foreign affairs, e.g.
- no exec branch, judges and courts left to states, which were sovereign
Congress had little power: each state had 1 vote, most bill required 2/3 vote, amendments unanimous
-no power to regulate commerce; diff tariff and navigation laws
- no enforcement of taxation “requests”
Nat govt could advise, recommend, request—not command or enforce
- mutinous PA soldiers demanded back pay 1783
-CC moved to Princeton college in NJ for protection
Jefferson liked the Articles of Conf
- outlined gen powers of central govt: treaties, post office, etc
- first written const., held states together
-stepping stone to the Const, transition to nationhood

*Landmarks in Land Laws
Land Ordinance of 1785: acreage of Old Northwest to be sold, money to pay off national debt
-surveying first, divided into townships (6 mi sq), each split into 36 sections (1 mi sq)
-section 16 of each township to be sold for benefit of public schools
-provided for orderly settlement of NW Territory (Ohio R valley)
Northwest Ordinance 1787
- two territorial stages, under control of fed govt
- application for statehood after 60,000 people lived there
- no slavery in Old Northwest
One of the greatest achievements of Congress during Articles of Conf

*The World’s Ugly Duckling
Britain refused to send ambassador to “backwoods” for 8 years
-refused to negotiate new treaty or repeal Navigation laws
-Amer’s continued to smuggle goods into W. Indies
-Br continued trade w/Indians, kept forts on frontier
Punish Br w/tariffs? no uniform policy among 13 states
Spain now unfriendly, closed N.O. to Amer commerce, claimed FL
-schemed w/Indians to restrict US westward expansion
- forts at Natchez and St. Louis, border dispute in MS and AL
- pirates from N. Africa harassed US ships; US too weak to fight back, too poor to pay bribes

*The Horrid Specter of Anarchy
High debt, no foreign credit 1780s
- boundary quarrels, tariff disputes among states
-war vets, now small farmers, losing farms to mortgage foreclosure
-Daniel Shays led revolt favoring: cheap paper money, lower taxes, suspension of foreclosures
MA raised small army, killed 3 at Springfield, captured Shays and sentenced him to death (later pardoned)
- some feared that mob rule was at hand
- debtors feared strong federal govt, creditors feared anarchy
-How to strengthen the Articles of Conf?
- new constitution?
-amendments to Articles?

*A Convention of Demigods
Hamilton, 6 states, and Congress issued call for convention
-12 states sent delegates (not RI, a strong paper-money state)
- all delegates appointed by their state legislatures
- a select group of propertied men
55 men met at Phil, May 1787
- secrecy: did not want to publicize their disagreements
-Jeff called them “demigods”, most were lawyers
- G. Wash elected chairman “Sword of the Revolution”
- Franklin, Madison, Hamilton were delegates
- Adams, Jefferson, Paine were in Europe
-Patrick Henry stayed home, he “smelled a rat”
- Sam Adams and J. Hancock were not elected by MA

*Patriots in Philadelphia
Lawyers, merchants, shippers, speculators, ave age 42, no debtors
-wanted firm, dignified, respected govt
- wanted more powerful central govt w/ tariff authority
- opposed mercantilist Lord Sheffield of Br
Preserve union, forestall anarchy, ensure property vs mobocracy
- opposed Daniel Shays

*Hammering out a Bundle of Compromises
Scrap, not revise, the Articles of Conf
- Va: large-state plan: rep based on population
-NJ: small-state plan: rep based on equality of states
- debate, deadlock, Great Compromise (Art I, Sec II, III, VII)
Strong independent executive: the president
-precedent: popular elected gov had crushed Shays’ rebellion
-pres would be comm.-in-chief, have appt and veto power
-indirect (electoral college) system for choosing pres
- 3/5 compromise in rep of slaves for population purposes
- slave trade allowed to continue until the end of 1807

*Safeguards for Conservatism
Sound money and private property protected
- stronger govt w/3 branches, checks and balances
- opposed to universal suffrage
Judges to serve for life, senators chosen indirectly by legislatures
- govt must be based on consent of governed
- powers of govt limited, popular sovereignty
- 41 out of original 55 signed Const on Sept 25, 1787

*Clash of Federalists and Antifederalists
-Only 9 states were required to ratify, through special conventions
- Congress submitted document to states
- debate erupted
Anti-federalists included states’ rights people, small farmers, the poor, debtors, paper-money advocates, back-country folk
-federalists more conservative, wealthy, closer to coast
- Loyalists supported Const.
- antis didn’t want to end annual election of reps, opposed creation of DC, standing army, no reference to God, ratification by 2/3
What's that sound?...

[12 Oct 2004|07:51pm]

Chapter 10 Outline
Constitution launched in 1789
First official census in 1790; Philadelphia (most populated), New York, Boston, Charleston, Baltimore
George Washington unanimously drafted as president by the Electoral College in 1789
- lived on Mount Vernon
- took the oath of office on April 30, 1789
- established the cabinet; at first, only three full-fledged department heads served under the president: Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson), Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton), Secretary of War (Henry Knox)
Amendments to the Constitution could be proposed in two ways
- new constitutional convention requested by 2/3 of states
- 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress
Bill of Rights (first ten amendments) adopted in 1791
- freedom of religion, speech, and press
- right to bear arms and to be tried by a jury
- right to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances
- prohibits cruel and unusual punishments, and arbitrary government seizure of private property
- certain rights “shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people”
- all rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the federal Constitution “to the States respectively, or to the people”
Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associate, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general
John Jay
- Madison's collaborator on The Federalist papers
- became first chief justice of the United States
“Funding at par” - federal government would pay off its debts at face value, plus accumulated interest
Hamilton - “Father of the National Debt”
- believed that a national debt was a “national blessing” - a kind of union adhesive
Money to pay interest on this huge debt and to run the government
- Hamilton's first answer – customs duties derived from a tariff
- tariff revenues depended on a vigorous foreign trade
1st tariff law passed by first Congress in 1789
- revenue was main goal
- measure was also designed to erect a low protective wall around infant industries
Hamilton sought additional internal revenue
- 1791, secured from Congress excise tax on a few domestic items (notably whiskey)
Hamilton proposed a Bank of the United States
- government would be major stockholder
- federal Treasury would deposit its surplus monies
- Jefferson argued against the bank – states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks
Hamilton believed what Constitution did not forbid was permitted (Jefferson – what it did not permit was forbade)
Washington reluctantly signed the bank measure into law
Bank of the United States created by Congress in 1791
Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 in Pennsylvania challenged the new national government
- excise tax was a burden
- preachers of the gospel were paid in “Old Monongahela rye” (rye & corn crops distilled into alcohol were more cheaply transported to Eastern markets than bales of grain)
- “Liberty and No Excise.”
- “Whiskey Boys”
National political parties were unknown (they were factions)
- Whigs and Tories
- federalists and antifederalists
Founders at Philadelphia had not envisioned the existence of permanent political parties
- organized opposition to government seemed tainted with disloyalty
Jefferson and Madison organized their opposition to the Hamiltonian program
Washington's first administration ended early in 1793
- Hamilton's domestic policies had already stimulated the formation of two political camps: Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans and Hamiltonian Federalists
French Revolution entered more ominous phase in 1792
- France declared war on Austria
- France declared itself a republic, and Americans sang “The Marseillaise”
- King Street in New York became Liberty Street
- Royal Exchange Alley in Boston became Equality Lane
Franco-American alliance of 1778
Washington issued Neutrality Proclamation in 1793, shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France
- proclaimed the government's official neutrality in the widening conflict
- sternly warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps
Citizen Edmond Genet, representative of French Republic
- landed at Charleston, SC to outfit privateers, recruit volunteers, fight, invade Florida, etc.
London government had fur trade in the Great Lakes region
General “Mad Anthony” Wayne crushed northwest Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794
Treaty of Greenville of 1795
- Indians ceded their claims to a vast virgin tract in the Ohio country
Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794
- routinely kissed the Queen's hand (alarmed the Jeffersonians)
- forced Jay to give ground by binding the U.S. to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts (Jay's Treaty)
Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 with Spain granted the Americans virtually everything they demanded
Washington's Farewell Address to the nation in 1797 strongly advised the avoidance of “permanent alliances”
Political passions ran high in the presidential campaign of 1796
- John Adams (“His Rotundity”) won
- Thomas Jefferson became vice presidential
Hamilton resigned from Treasury in 1795
- headed the war faction of the Federalist party, “High Federalists”
War hysteria slogan - “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.”
Navy Department was created
Three-ship navy was expanded
United States Marine Corps as established
New army of 10,000 men was authorized
In early 1799, Adams submitted to the Senate the name of a new minister to France
Napoleon Bonaparte (“Little Corporal”) had recently seized dictatorial power
Convention of 1800 was signed in Paris
Oppressive laws in 1798
- aimed at supposedly pro-Jeffersonian “aliens”; Alien Laws
“lockjaw” Sedition Act
- direct slap at two priceless freedoms guaranteed in the Constitution by the Bill of Rights (freedom of speech and of the press)
- anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment
Congressman Matthew Lyon (the “Spitting Lion”)
- had earlier gained fame by spitting in the face of a Federalist
Fearing prosecution for sedition, Jefferson secretly penned a series of resolutions, which the Kentucky legislature approved in 1798 and 1799
- James Madison drafted a similar but less extreme statement, adopted by the legislature of Virginia in 1798
compact theory – the thirteen sovereign states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a “compact,” or contract, regarding its jurisdiction
Jeffersonian Republicans, unlike the Federalist “British boot-lickers,” were basically pro-French

1789 – Constitution formally put into effect
- Judiciary Act of 1789
- Washington elected president
- French Revolution begins
1790 – First official census
1791 – Bill of Rights adopted
- Vermont becomes fourteenth state
- Bank of the United States create
- Excise tax passed
1792 – Washington reelected president
1792-93 – Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties formed
1793 – Louis XVI beheaded; radical phase of French Revolution
- France declares war on Britain and Spain
- Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
- Citizen Genet affair
1794 – Whiskey Rebellion
- Battle of Fallen Timbers
- Jay's Treaty with Britain
1795 – Treaty of Greenville: Indians cede Ohio
- Pinckney's Treaty with Spain
1796 – Washington's Farewell Address
1797 – Adams becomes president
- XYZ Affair
1798-99 – Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
1798-1800 – Undeclared war with France
1800 – Convention of 1800: peace with France
What's that sound?...

[12 Oct 2004|06:50pm]

ntact - complete (ooh, yeah. I. Eye. Get it? I"m so cool....)
interval - a time between
judicious - wise, careful
laggard - lazy, falling behind
leveling - making the same
mobocracy - ruled by the mobSCENE
mortgage forclousure - repossesment
muddle-through - to hastily do
plausible - seemingly true
pooh-pooh - to minimize, contempt
portend - foreshadow
pretension - false quality
protracted - drawn out
quorum - # of gathered members
rapacious - greedy, grasping
ratification - official approval
reconcile - to compromise
stipulate - specify quality, guarantee
strangulation - constriction
subordination - placing in a lower position (on your knees)
tutelage - teachings of
unicameral - one house of legislature; Nebraska
uppercrust - aristocrats
urbanity - elegance of manner
veneration - reverence
vehement - strong, LOUD
What's that sound?...

[12 Oct 2004|05:23pm]

[ mood | sleepy ]

Chapter 9 Vocabulary
aloof – reserved
narchy – disorder
antagonist – opponent
apportion – divide, distribute
austere – stern, severe, harsh
ballast – something that gives weight
bane – cause of distress, harm
boon – benefit, blessing
civic virtue – honesty, unselfishness, etc.
colic – acute abdominal pain (?)
conspicuous – standing out
defray – pay, furnish money
demigod – god-like person
despotic – dictatorial
disgruntled – annoyed
dissent – differ, disagree
distillation – process of making something more pure
egalitarian – equality
encroachment – gradual trespassing
enfranchised – given voting rights
fledgling – young, immature
foment – to insight
grotesque – bizarre, distorted
idealism – behavior based on what ought to be
impotence – lack of power, helplessness
innovation – invention, something new

What's that sound?...

[07 Oct 2004|12:18am]

Justine's shit, don't worry about itCollapse )
1 Voice in your head..|What's that sound?...

[05 Oct 2004|06:42pm]


1988 MacMillan Educational Company
Macmillan Inc. NEWYORK

Worldbook 2001
World book Inc Chicago IL
God help me.
What's that sound?...

[05 Oct 2004|12:41am]

President Bush said, “Race is a reality in American life." I feel the same way as President Bush. I feel that many people racist still today, particularly in the South. No matter what any polls say or what any person says, racism will always be apart of the United States. Martin Luther King Jr. did a lot for his time. He made a lot of fellow Negroes stand up for themselves and try to be heard. He made a great temporal change, but he never fully changed everyone’s mind.
Today, schools and other public facilities are integrated, thanks to Martin Luther King Jr., but discrimination is still shown in these places. Schools have “clicks” , and a lot; though not all, usually differentiate by race. Kids of today can not even begin to imagine what life was like back in the 50's and 60's for Negroes. In those times, one would be thrown out, beaten up, and sometimes even killed just for ordering something at an all white bar. Of course that behavior is to common today, but groups throughout America still do not respect Negroes as they might respect another person of the same color or race.
I feel that Martin Luther King Jr.'s dream has not been fully completed. Small infractions still plague that magnificent dream. These small infractions can be as simple as whispers when someone of another color walks by, or as serious as burning a hate cross in someone’s yard. Martin Luther King Jr. would look at the world and say that he is happy with how things have changed even though it is not perfect. Compared to the 1960’s, society is far better than it was in his time.

In the 15 years that I have lived, I have only seen but one sign that said "WHITES ONLY", and this was in an antiques store. I am very grateful for that, grateful that I don't have to walk down the street and see the signs posted all around the town saying that only these people can sit here and enter there. In the year 2004, I feel that racism has diminished greatly, but is still present in the United States.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s dream has not only touched my life, but many other people’s lives all around us. You may not even know that it has. If you have ever seen anyone with an interracial relationship, that was not possible back in the 50's and 60's unless it was held in secret. If anyone found out of this secret relationship, the Black would be beaten, and the White possibly as well. Today as I walk around campus here at Caddo Magnet High, I see so many different types of couples, many different races blended together to form such a beautiful array of people.

MY ID CRAPCollapse )
What's that sound?...

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